References and Further Reading 1.
Schema theory, scripts, and mental templates: This article describes the core concepts in schema theory, discusses some examples of how it gives powerful insights, and relates it to various concepts that complement it. Schema theory was introduced in the s by Sir Fred Bartlett.
The core idea is that a schema is a sort of mental template that describes the key features of something. For instance, the schema for a typical car includes having four wheels, a chassis, a body, doors, seats and a steering wheel.
Scripts in this context are a sub-type of schema that describe the key features of an activity — a verb as opposed to a noun.
For instance, the script for a pre-arranged dinner at a French-style restaurant includes the actions of booking a table, arriving at the agreed time, being greeted by a member of staff, being shown to your table, etc. So far, this may sound tidy but not particularly powerful or interesting.
These take us into fields as varied as designing game-changing new products, the law, and measuring novelty in film scripts, as well as the eternal question of why the general public appears collectively unable to have consistent, clear ideas about what it wants.
That looks like complete disagreement. However, suppose that you instead ask them to describe their dream SUV and then to describe their dream sports car. What sort of responses would you expect to get now?
The SUV would be expected to be high off the ground the opposite of the value for the sports carwith a lot of passenger space again, opposite to the sports car schema and luggage space yet again, the opposite to the sports car.
What would happen, however, if you were doing a survey about what people wanted in their ideal house, or their ideal job? Before moving on to some applications of schema theory, there are some underpinning concepts that need to be covered. Concepts and terminology The plural of schema is either schemata or schemas, depending on personal preference.
I usually prefer schemata, mainly because schemas sounds like schemers and therefore risks producing surreal misunderstandings about people scheming and plotting. Schemata are similar to numerous other concepts, such as categories and genres.
Categories are usually defined by a small set of key features — typically, as small a set as possible, so that the definition is as efficient as possible. Schemata, on the other hand, can vary from very simple to very elaborate. Genres are a good example of a concept that works well at an informal level, but which rapidly degenerates into inconsistency and chaos when you try to formalise it, as any music lover will probably tell you.
Each genus, for instance, has its own set of key characteristics, and then each species within that genus will in turn have its own further set of key characteristics that distinguish it from the others in that genus.
These literatures deal in detail with questions such as whether each species always shares the key characteristics of the higher-level categories to which it belongs e. A surprisingly large proportion of researchers in a wide range of fields invent classifications and ontologies without first reading up on the basics of category theory or taxonomic theory.
The short answer is that it does share a lot of foundations with that work, but schema theory and related concepts such as formal knowledge representation in AI go much further. Modern work, in contrast, can bring in approaches such as fuzzy logic and rough set theory, which were developed specifically to deal with such cases, and which enable researchers and developers to handle a wide range of real-world problems in an elegant, powerful way.
Fuzzy logic in particular has become ubiquitous since its invention by Zadeh in the s. A lot of modern engines have fuzzy logic built into them, to improve their performance, in products as diverse as cars and washing machines.
A lot of legal argument is about the schema to which something belongs, with some schemata being legal, and others being illegal. A classic example is pictures of naked people. Until recently in the West, pictures of naked people were treated very differently by the law, depending on the schema to which they were assigned.
One schema was medical images; another was naturist or nudist images; another was art; another was erotica; another was pornography. Each of these was treated differently by law and by society. Pornography was outlawed until recently in most countries, and even in those countries where it is legal, there are still restrictions on which schemata within pornography are legal.
So, a decision about schema membership could make the difference between freedom and gaol. Fortune and glory Schemata are also important for product design.
In olden times, people interacted with computers via command lines, with the human and the computer taking it in turns to write text onto the screen.
Instead, what you see on the screen is designed to look as much like possible for the schema of an office workplace, with folders containing documents sitting on a desktop, and a waste basket at one side.
The beauty of this approach is twofold. The change of schema from the schema of writing text to the schema of the desktop was one that changed the face of computing, and made many people very rich.
It has also changed public expectations; people now expect products to be usable without having to read a manual, so having the right schema for the product design can be a major factor in the success or failure of the product. Closing thoughts Drawing on well-established schemata has a lot of advantages.
It reduces learning load and cognitive load for the humans involved, and it also makes their knowledge more internally consistent.
Social schemata are also useful for smoothing interactions between people, by providing a shared set of norms about behaviour.Social Psychology Theory Aggression Criminology Essay. Print Reference this.
Script Theory. According to the script theory, scripts are sets of well-rehearsed, highly associated concepts in memory, often involving causal links, goals, and action plans.
When items are so strongly linked that they form a script, they become a single . Introduction to Services Marketing Describe the concepts of role theory, script theory and theatricalperspective.
Explain how they help to provide insights into consumer behaviour during the service encounter. Aug 30, · By Gordon Rugg Why should anyone care about schema theory? Well, among other things, it’s at the heart of how society functions, and if you make good use of it, you can become rich, famous and socially successful.
That’s a persuasive pair of reasons. This article describes the core concepts in schema theory, discusses some. Investopedia helps you understand complex financial concepts, improve investing skills, and learn to manage money.
VISIT SITE Lifewire shows you how to fix, learn how-to, choose what to buy, and make the most out of your tech. Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.   This involves biological, erotic, physical, emotional, social, or spiritual feelings and behaviors.
  Because it is a broad term, which has varied over time, it lacks a precise definition. . Cognitive Developmental Theory • Gender identity is a cognitive concept that children learn as part of the process of learning about the physical world & their bodies.
Cognitive Developmental Theory • Children younger than 2 have no concept of gender • Cannot consistently label themselves or others as male or female.