Recommended resources Did you know? He worked with U. He began his speech with the words of the American Declaration of Independence:
A flute-maker could be off a bit due to that kind of error, but not a lot off. The holes are a lot off from being equidistantly spaced. So this is assumption 1 -- but a likely one: The unequalness is deliberate. The next assumption is also extremely likely to be true: As we humans seem to show, there is a history of a predisposition toward equality in measurements: The distances between telephone poles; between pickets; between windows on buildings in the architecture of all periods and cultures; between sidewalk slabs; between inches; feet, yards, centimeters -- between ranks and files of all types, etc.
One of the infrequent exceptions to this mental penchant is the historical 5 and 7-note musical scales. One look at a piano keyboard shows that our inclination for equal spacings for intervals between things musical notes in this case has been ignored or was over-ridden.
Not only in Western music, but even throughout history and by widely differing musical cultures.
Kilmer, head of Dept of Assyriology at U. Since the distance between fingertips from one tip to another is more or less equal, then the holes in this Neanderthal flute if Neanderthals have the same mental penchant for easy arithmetic and equidistant repetitions as we do should have been equidistant -- if for no other reason than to fit the convenience of the finger widths.
When we look at history, such a scale would be, and it seems, was felt, to be "out of tune" in most human musical cultures. Therefore, the holes likely were made with the goal in mind of producing some kind of non-equal scale or set of notes. Using negative logic, the question arises: Regarding the actual notes that might have come from the flute: Unless we can know the full original length of the flute, and the placement of holes on it, we cannot know for certain the notes that were played on it.
But all is not lost. Readers may be aware of all, some or none of the following, so excuse me if I assume none. If you take a length of violin or piano string, and press down in the center creating what is called a "node" in the stringthen each half of the string when played will produce an octave up, of the note of the entire string.
A division into thirds makes notes that are called 5ths, and so on. Similarly, a column of air inside a wind instrument can be divided, and each lesser length of air-column can produce other notes, as well. In order to take a long musical horn and get it to produce other notes, we have seen history roll up the horn, and add valves trumpet or a slide trombone to force into existence differing lengths of columns of vibrating air inside the instrument -- hence creating the different notes in the scale.
The holes in a flute can likewise create these changing lengths of air-columns and produce different notes. We might have the last 3 or 4 holes, or the middle 4, of the whole flute.
The unequal spacings would be our best clue as to which holes they were again "assuming" we are looking for a diatonic or pentatonic scale.
If we assume the scale is there reasonable to do, I think, just from the unequalness of the hole spacingsthen the hole spacings might possibly lead to the reconstruction of the full-length flute.
Again, we are left with the question above: First, disregarding for the moment the actual "key" or absolute pitch of notes, the general way in which a flute is made to produce a pentatonic or major diatonic scale is as follows: Whatever the length of the flute bone, bamboo, metal, whateverthat length called L is divided as follows: From the blow-end, if no holes are punched, then the flute will produce its fundamental note and its octavenamely, Do from the Do, Re, Mi scale.
We can label the distances between the holes which will be necessarily unequally-spaced as z, y, x, w, v, u, as many as are needed to suit the number of holes.
There is the possibility of an end hole made on the face of the flute rather than made by the exiting of the hollow bore, and the possibility of a flute with 8 holes playing both Do notes.TREATISE ON TOLERANCE.
ON THE OCCASION OF THE DEATH OF JEAN CALAS. I. A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE DEATH OF JEAN CALAS.
The murder of Jean Calas, committed in Toulouse with the sword of justice, the 9th of March, , is one of the most singular events that calls for the attention of the present age and of posterity.
Broken Home and Powedring Snow Essay Broken Home and Powedring Snow “Powder” is a story written by Tobias Wolff in staged in the mid to late ’s. This short story is about a boy and his father skiing at Mount Baker on Christmas Eve and what it takes them to get back home in time for dinner.
Nov 20, · Our fixation on diversity cost us this election — and more. (2 complete holes, and 2 confirmed partial holes, one at each broken end of bone.) NEANDERTHAL FLUTE Oldest Musical Instrument's 4 Notes Matches 4 .
Online Library of Liberty. A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets. A project of Liberty Fund, Inc. Henry Kreisel’s “The Broken Globe,” was published in The Literary Review (Summer ) by Fairleigh Dickinson University in Rutherford, New Jersey.
The short story begins in London, but the.